Motivation in Business. It is also important to mention the work of the Australian psychologist Elton Mayo conducted in the first half of the twentieth century showed that the quality of human relations within the team and the cooperation and solidarity of the group are the main motivators of workers.
Here are three of the most influential in the field of work motivation theories are presented.
What are the 3 facts Motivation in Business?
Theory of Pyramid or Hierarchy of Human Needs
This theory was formulated in the mid-twentieth century by Abraham Maslow, American social psychologist founder of the humanist. It establishes five hierarchical needs, so that if one person has not satisfied one level, it is not possible to think of the next. Thus, when a need is sufficiently covered, no longer motivates behavior.
Pyramid of Human Needs
Base: basic needs (physiological) such as eating or sleeping.
Second: The need for security, ie have resources to live or have good health, for example.
Third: Need for acceptance and affection or affiliation, ie have friends, family, and so on.
Fourth: Need for respect and recognition, that is to succeed, feel recognized for oneself and for others.
Cusp: Need realization, ie transcendence and personal growth.
3 Needs Theory
In this theory David McClelland, contemporary American psychologist Abraham Maslow, search the reasons that lead people to focus on a task, a continuing concern to achieve a state drives, selects and directs the behavior of people.
Although all people have these three requirements in each individual one prevails over the other. The needs are:
Achievement motivation (people seeking challenges and assume responsibilities and objectives)
Affiliation motivation (people cooperators, who prioritize human relations above results)
Power motivation (people who seek to control others, influence others, using and retaining information available).
Theory X and Y
Douglas McGregor, economist and specialist in business management, proposes two ways of thinking about people, their motivations and behaviors.
This theory argues that human beings do not like work or effort, which plays the same force. This means that workers must be controlled and threatened to achieve the objectives of the organization. People prefer to be guided and directed, as they do not have any ambition.
In Theory Y McGregor says people see work as a development opportunity so they are capable of self-control and direct its efforts towards the objectives. They seek responsibility and can develop creativity to solve the problems of organizations.
Although these theories of motivation at work have been developed and applied five or six decades ago, they are still valid and have been established as the main theories of motivation at work.